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アルゴリズム:インターネットに仕掛けられたフィルター

 
Eli Pariser: Beware online "filter bubbles"











Mark Zuckerberg, a journalist was asking him a question about the news feed. And the journalist was asking him, "Why is this so important?" And Zuckerberg said, "A squirrel dying in your front yard may be more relevant to your interests right now than people dying in Africa." And I want to talk about what a Web based on that idea of relevance might look like.

relevant:〔当面の問題・主題に〕関連して,関係があって 〔to〕.

マーク・ザッカーバーグが ニュース配信について質問されていました 「なぜそんなに重要なんですか?」 ジャーナリストが聞くと ザッカーバーグは答えました 「今あなたの関心事は アフリカで死に瀕した人々よりも 家の庭で死にかけているリスかもしれないでしょう」 この関連性の考え方をもとにした ウェブとはどういうことか話したいと思います

So when I was growing up in a really rural area in Maine, the Internet meant something very different to me. It meant a connection to the world. It meant something that would connect us all together. And I was sure that it was going to be great for democracy and for our society.

メイン州の片田舎に住んでいた 僕にとって 子供の頃 インターネットは全く違う意味を持ったものでした 世界へのドアであり 人々を繋げるものでした 民主主義と僕たちの社会に 大きく役立つに違いないと思っていました

But there's this shift in how information is flowing online, and it's invisible. And if we don't pay attention to it, it could be a real problem. So I first noticed this in a place I spend a lot of time -- my Facebook page.
I'm progressive, politically -- big surprise -- but I've always gone out of my way to meet conservatives. I like hearing what they're thinking about; I like seeing what they link to; I like learning a thing or two.

でも見えないところで インターネットでの 情報の流れに変化がありました 注意しないと 大きな問題になるかもしれません これに初めて気付いたのは僕がいつも使っている Facebookのページでした
見た目どおり 僕は政党的には進歩派ですが 進んで保守派と交流しています 保守派の考えを聞いたり 何にリンクしているか見たり 何か学びたいと思っています

And so I was surprised when I noticed one day that the conservatives had disappeared from my Facebook feed. And what it turned out was going on was that Facebook was looking at which links I clicked on, and it was noticing that, actually, I was clicking more on my liberal friends' links than on my conservative friends' links. And without consulting me about it, it had edited them out. They disappeared.

ですから ある日僕のFacebookの配信から 保守派の人たちが消えてしまって驚きました 何が起こったのかと言うと 僕がどのリンクをクリックしているかFacebookがチェックしていて 実際に保守派より リベラル派の友達のリンクを クリックすることが多いと気づき 僕に何の相談もなく 保守派を削除していたのです 保守派はいなくなってしまいました

So Facebook isn't the only place that's doing this kind of invisible, algorithmic editing of the Web. Google's doing it too. If I search for something, and you search for something, even right now at the very same time, we may get very different search results.
Even if you're logged out, one engineer told me, there are 57 signals that Google looks at -- everything from what kind of computer you're on to what kind of browser you're using to where you're located -- that it uses to personally tailor your query results.
Think about it for a second: there is no standard Google anymore. And you know, the funny thing about this is that it's hard to see. You can't see how different your search results are from anyone else's.

tailor:〈…を〉〔…に〕適合させる,合うようにする 〔to,for〕.
query:質問; 質疑

このように目に見えないところで アルゴリズムによるウェブの 編集をしているのはFacebookだけではありません Googleもしています 何かの検索をするにしても 僕とあなたでは たとえ今同時に検索しても かなり違う結果になる可能性があります
あるエンジニアによると ログオンしてなくても 57個のシグナルを Googleはチェックしているそうです どんなPCを使っているか どのブラウザを使っているか 現在地は何処かなどによって 検索結果を調節しているのです
ちょっと考えてみてください もう標準のGoogle検索はないのです そして妙なことに これは認識しにくい現象です 自分の検索結果がどれほど 他人のものと違うか分かりません

But a couple of weeks ago, I asked a bunch of friends to Google "Egypt" and to send me screen shots of what they got. So here's my friend Scott's screen shot. And here's my friend Daniel's screen shot. When you put them side-by-side, you don't even have to read the links to see how different these two pages are.
But when you do read the links, it's really quite remarkable. Daniel didn't get anything about the protests in Egypt at all in his first page of Google results. Scott's results were full of them. And this was the big story of the day at that time. That's how different these results are becoming.

remarkable (1)a注目すべき,驚くべき. Really? How remarkable! 本当? これは驚いた. b〔…で〕目立って. (2)非凡な,すぐれた,珍しい.

でも数週間前 Googleで「エジプト」と検索したスクリーンショットを 送ってもらうよう大勢の友人に頼みました これが友人スコットのスクリーンショットです こちらはダニエルからのスクリーンショットです 並べて見てみると リンクを読むまでもなく 2つのページの違いに気付きます
でも実際リンクを読むと 本当に驚きます ダニエルのGoogle検索結果の最初のページには エジプトのデモ関連記事が全くなく スコットの方はそればかりでした この頃大きな話題だったのにです これほど検索結果は異なってきています

So it's not just Google and Facebook either. This is something that's sweeping the Web. There are a whole host of companies that are doing this kind of personalization. Yahoo News, the biggest news site on the Internet, is now personalized -- different people get different things. Huffington Post, the Washington Post, the New York Times -- all flirting with personalization in various ways.
And this moves us very quickly toward a world in which the Internet is showing us what it thinks we want to see, but not necessarily what we need to see. As Eric Schmidt said, "It will be very hard for people to watch or consume something that has not in some sense been tailored for them."

sweep〈あらし・大波・伝染病などが〉(…を)襲う,吹きまくる,荒れる. Clouds swept down and hung over the village. 雲がさっと降りてきて村をおおった

GoogleとFacebookだけではありません これはウェブ全体で起こっています 多くの企業がこのようなカスタマイズをしています Yahoo!ニュースはネット最大のニュースサイトですが 今ではカスタマイズされた違う内容を提示しています Huffington Postや Washington Postや New York Timesも 様々な形でカスタマイズを試みています
その結果 インターネットは私たちが見たいものを 予測して見せているが それは必ずしも私たちが見る必要があるものでない という状況に急速に変わってきています エリック・シュミットが言うように 「全く何のカスタマイズもされていないものを 人々が見たり利用したりするのは とても難しくなるでしょう」

So I do think this is a problem. And I think, if you take all of these filters together, you take all these algorithms, you get what I call a filter bubble. And your filter bubble is your own personal, unique universe of information that you live in online.
And what's in your filter bubble depends on who you are, and it depends on what you do. But the thing is that you don't decide what gets in. And more importantly, you don't actually see what gets edited out.

ですからこれは問題だと思います このようなフィルターやアルゴリズムを 全部集めてできるのは 「フィルターに囲まれた世界」だと思うのです そしてこの「囲まれた世界」がネット上での あなた個人独特の 情報世界となるわけです
さらに自分の世界に何が含まれるかは 自分が どんな人で何をしているかによって決まります でも何が取り
れられるかは自分次第でないのが問題です もっと重要なのは 何が削除されるか自分には見えないことです

So one of the problems with the filter bubble was discovered by some researchers at Netflix. And they were looking at the Netflix queues, and they noticed something kind of funny that a lot of us probably have noticed, which is there are some movies that just sort of zip right up and out to our houses. They enter the queue, they just zip right out. So "Iron Man" zips right out, and "Waiting for Superman" can wait for a really long time.

フィルターによる問題の1つは Netflixのデータアナリストたちに発見されました 発送待ち段階で妙なことが起こっていたのです 気付いていた人も多いでしょうか 映画によってはDVDが すぐに発送されて家に届きます オーダーが入るとすぐに発送されます ですから「アイアンマン」はすぐ届くのに 「ウェイティング・フォー・スーパーマン(原題)」は 待ち時間がとても長いことがあります

What they discovered was that in our Netflix queues there's this epic struggle going on between our future aspirational selves and our more impulsive present selves. You know we all want to be someone who has watched "Rashomon," but right now we want to watch "Ace Ventura" for the fourth time.

epic: 異常に大きい,大規模な.
aspirational:熱望,(野心的)志望 〔for,after〕.
impulsive:〈人・言動など〉一時の感情に駆られた,衝動的な,直情的な.

データアナリストたちが DVDの発送待ち段階で見たのは 利用者の計画的な向上心と もっと衝動的な今の欲望が 大きく対立している状況でした 「羅生門」を観たことがある人に なりたいと思う一方 今は 4回目の 「エース・ベンチュラ」を観たいわけです (笑)

So the best editing gives us a bit of both. It gives us a little bit of Justin Bieber and a little bit of Afghanistan. It gives us some information vegetables; it gives us some information dessert.
And the challenge with these kinds of algorithmic filters, these personalized filters, is that, because they're mainly looking at what you click on first, it can throw off that balance. And instead of a balanced information diet, you can end up surrounded by information junk food.

最良の編集は両面を見せるものです ジャスティン・ビーバーを少し アフガニスタンを少し ヘルシーな情報と デザート的情報も提供するわけです
アルゴリズムでカスタマイズされた フィルターの問題点は 利用者が何を最初に クリックしたかを主に参考にしているため そのようなバランスを崩してしまうことです バランスのとれた情報摂取の代わりに ジャンク情報ばかりに 囲まれてしまうこともあり得ます

What this suggests is actually that we may have the story about the Internet wrong. In a broadcast society -- this is how the founding mythology goes -- in a broadcast society, there were these gatekeepers, the editors, and they controlled the flows of information.
And along came the Internet and it swept them out of the way, and it allowed all of us to connect together, and it was awesome.
But that's not actually what's happening right now. What we're seeing is more of a passing of the torch from human gatekeepers to algorithmic ones. And the thing is that the algorithms don't yet have the kind of embedded ethics that the editors did.

torch:たいまつ.

つまりインターネットに対する 我々の見解は実は間違っているのかもということです 放送社会の 創設神話はこんな感じです 「放送社会では 門番である編集者によって 情報の流れがコントロールされていました でもインターネットが現れ 門番を追い払ったので 素晴らしいことに 私たちは 繋がり合えるようになりました」
でも今 実際にはそうなっていません 私たちが目にしているのは どちらかと言うと 人間の門番からアルゴリズムの門番に バトンが渡されている状況です そして問題なのはアルゴリズムは 編集者が持ち合わせていた倫理観念を まだ持っていないということです

So if algorithms are going to curate the world for us, if they're going to decide what we get to see and what we don't get to see, then we need to make sure that they're not just keyed to relevance. We need to make sure that they also show us things that are uncomfortable or challenging or important -- this is what TED does -- other points of view.

curate (教区の)副牧師 《rector [vicar] の代理または助手》.
relevance 関連(性), 適切さ,妥当性 〔to〕.

ですから世界の情報をアルゴリズムが監修して 私たちが何を見て 何を見ないか決めるのなら アルゴリズムが関連性以外の要素も 使用するようにしなくてはなりません 見たくないものや難しいもの 重要なものなども提示するようにしなくてはだめです TEDが異なる視点を 見せていることと同じです

And the thing is, we've actually been here before as a society. In 1915, it's not like newspapers were sweating a lot about their civic responsibilities. Then people noticed that they were doing something really important.
That, in fact, you couldn't have a functioning democracy if citizens didn't get a good flow of information, that the newspapers were critical because they were acting as the filter, and then journalistic ethics developed.
It wasn't perfect, but it got us through the last century. And so now, we're kind of back in 1915 on the Web. And we need the new gatekeepers to encode that kind of responsibility into the code that they're writing.

encode:符号化する, エンコードする.

過去我々は同じ問題に 直面しています 1915年当時 新聞は市民としての義務について あまり考えていませんでした でも人々は新聞が 重要な役割を果たしていることに気付きました
つまり 市民が 適切な情報を得ていないと 民主主義は機能しないということです よって 情報のフィルターを行う新聞は重要なのです そしてジャーナリズムの倫理ができました
完璧ではありませんでしたが 1世紀の間このやり方をしてきました ですから現在私たちは ウェブ上での1915年に直面しているようなものです プログラムを書く上で このような責任を 組み込んでくれる 新しい門番が必要なのです

I know that there are a lot of people here from Facebook and from Google -- Larry and Sergey -- people who have helped build the Web as it is, and I'm grateful for that. But we really need you to make sure that these algorithms have encoded in them a sense of the public life, a sense of civic responsibility.

会場にはFacebookとGoogleからの出席者も大勢います ラリーやサーゲイのように 今あるウェブの構築に 貢献した人々には感謝しています でも私たちは彼らに これらのアルゴリズムに 生活や市民の義務が組み込まれているように しっかり確認してもらいたいのです

We need you to make sure that they're transparent enough that we can see what the rules are that determine what gets through our filters. And we need you to give us some control so that we can decide what gets through and what doesn't.
Because I think we really need the Internet to be that thing that we all dreamed of it being. We need it to connect us all together. We need it to introduce us to new ideas and new people and different perspectives. And it's not going to do that if it leaves us all isolated in a Web of one.

perspective (…な)考え方,見方. (物事を見通す) 釣り合いの取れた見方. 

アルゴリズムが明白で何が入ってくるかを決める フィルターのルールが 理解できるようにして欲しいのです さらに自分で何が削除されて 何がされないか決められるように 管理できるオプションを提供してもらいたいです
これも インターネットが私たちの 思い描いていたようなものに なってもらう必要があると思うからです みんなを繋ぐものであり 新しいアイデアや人々 そして 異なる視点を提示するものであるべきです これを達成するには ウェブ上で私たちが孤立しないようにするべきです
 

金冠日食を巡る空騒ぎ

 
Ring of fire: Rare eclipse sparks craze

i68f8b38d87b5.jpg

eclipse: (太陽・月の)食.
craze:〈人を〉発狂させる

An annular eclipse about to form a perfect ring (Image from journalsendiri.blogspot.com)

annular:環状の

Witnessing a total solar eclipse is considered one of the planet’s most spectacular sights, but many who’ve seen both say that a ring-of-fire eclipse is just as dramatic. Hundreds of millions across the world will get a chance to see one on May 20.

Both types of eclipses happen when the Moon moves between the Sun and the Earth, blocking out sunlight. A total eclipse occurs when the Moon is close enough to our planet to totally obscure the Sun. Meanwhile a ring-of-fire, or annular eclipse, appears when the Moon is further away and does not prevent all sunlight from getting through.

obscure:〈…を〉おおい隠す; 暗くする,曇らせる.

During an annular eclipse, as the Moon aligns with the Sun, it appears as if there is a black hole in the middle of a burning disc – its name comes from annulus, which means “ring” in Latin.
On average there are about four annular eclipses every five years. But they are always in different places – and there hasn’t been one in the US for 18 years.

align:〈…を〉一直線にする; 〈…を〉一列に整列させる; 〈…を〉〔…と〕一直線にする 〔with〕.
annulus:環,輪.

This time, the eclipse will start on Sunday night (GMT) in China and Japan, and over the next four hours will travel more than 10,000 km across the Pacific Ocean and onto the United States. But only those lucky enough to be in the 300-kilometer-wide corridor will be able to observe the eclipse.

corridor:回廊地帯 《内陸国などが他国内を通って海港などに達する細長い地域》.

Easternmost Russia, South Korea, Philippines, Canada and Mexico will only witness a partial eclipse – not a perfect ring.
As for the annulus itself, you really have to get your timing right. While the sky will get darker, the period when the sun neatly outlines the moon only lasts about five minutes at most.

Weather could spoil view

The US has set up dozens of viewing events in National Parks and observatories across the west of the country.

observatory:観測所; 天文台,気象台,測候所.

But Japan has truly exploded in an Eclipse craze.
Mainstream TV shows have spent hours discussing the usually neglected topic of astronomy, while popular science books and amateur telescopes have flown off the shelves. The eclipse will pass Japan early on Monday morning local time. Cable-cars will run early and boats have been rented to get a better view of the rare phenomenon.

fly off:飛び散る[去る], 急いで去る.
shelve:棚.

But all this is hardly surprising considering one fact: Tokyo has not been exposed to an annular eclipse for 173 years.
Now there is only one thing to wait for – a clear sky.

“Unfortunately this is monsoon season, and the weather prospects are supposed to be poor,” Alan MacRobert, editor of Sky and Telescope magazine, told the news agency AFP.
“China and Japan don't look to be very lucky for this. It would take quite a stroke of luck to get a clear sky.”

In fact, the last time there was a ring of fire eclipse scheduled for the US West Coast in 1992, the event turned out to be something of a damp squib.

squib:シューと音を立てて破裂する(不発の爆竹のような)火薬がつまった管でできた花火

Back then, 15,000 people gathered at the Griffith Observatory in LA only to end up looking at a nondescript cloudy sky, before dispersing meekly.

nondescript:これといった特徴のない,あまり印象に残らない; 漠然とした.
disperse:〈風が〉〈雲・霧などを〉消散させる.
meekly:従順な人か無気力なさまで

This time, California will once again be the best place to watch the eclipse, but astronomers at Griffith are warning amateurs to temper their expectations, while hoping the skies will prove kinder this time.

temper:〈…を〉〔…で〕調節する,加減する,やわらげる.
 

「堕落したMTVは放送禁止すべき」 アンチ=ゲイの主唱者が主張

 
Author of gay propaganda bill wants MTV shut down

ie1bea3541382c99ffd8461fe57c91cf5_mtv-logoset.jpg

The initiator of the bill against promoting homosexuality, transgender and pedophilia in St. Petersburg is now calling to shut down MTV, as he believes it corrupting the viewers.
United Russia deputy Vitaliy Milonov believes that MTV has "crossed all boundaries,” Interfax reports.

initiator:創始者; 首唱者.
pedophilia:小児性愛
corrupt:〈人・品性などを〉堕落させる.

“I think that there should be no such channel,” Milonov says.
According to the deputy, most programs broadcast on MTV are vulgar and immoral, and can’t possibly have any positive influence on the channel’s viewers, who are mostly teenagers and people under 35.

vulgar:〈人・態度・言葉など〉俗悪な,野卑な,低級な; 下品な,卑猥(ひわい)な,みだらな (⇔polite).

Milonov also noted that MTV was once his favorite channel, yet it has drastically changed over the years. “They had great music, zany cartoons, not like now,” Milonov complains. He also noted that the problem of low-quality shows on television can be solved if a special Morality Council is introduced to influence the “moral image of media.”

zany:おどけた,ばかばかしい.

MTV has been broadcasting in Russia since 1998, and was mostly dedicated to music. But in the 2000s, when other Russian entertainment media began to drive away MTV’s viewers, the channel’s broadcasting policy changed. The media exceeded the number of entertainment shows related to sex and relationships themes, fashion and beauty.

drive away:追い遣る;追払う;追い払う

Earlier this year St.Petersburg’s Governor Georgy Poltavchenko signed a bill introducing high fines for promoting homosexuality, transgender and pedophilia in the city.

bill:【議会】 議案,法案 《★可決されると bill が act(法令)となる》.
fine:罰金

The bill has already scooped massive criticism from the LGBT community in Russia and from Russian and international human rights organizations.

LGBT=Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender/Transexual

 

イスラエルで経済格差を巡ってデモが発生

 
Thousands of Israelis protest against social inequalities

gholami20120513033502700.jpg

A protester speaks slogans into a megaphone during a protest march in East al-Quds (Jerusalem) against the high costs of living and social inequality, Saturday, May 12, 2012.

inequality: 不同,不等,不平等; 不公平.

About 5,000 protesters gathered at central Rabin Square in Tel Aviv on Saturday evening in the largest demonstration held since last summer.

At least nine people were arrested for blocking roads in Tel Aviv.

Similar demonstrations were also held in East al-Quds (Jerusalem), Haifa, Eilat, and other major cities.

Some 1,000 protesters converged in an intersection near Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's official residence in East al-Quds, marched toward his residence and protested in front of the gate of the compound.

converge:一点[共通点]に向かって集まる,集中する (⇔diverge).
compound:囲いをした居留構内,屋敷 《住宅・商館などがある》.

Some of the protesters called for the departure of the premier, accusing Netanyahu of failing to reduce the social gaps.

call for:…を求めて呼ぶ
departure:〔常道・習慣などからの〕離脱,背反 〔from〕.

Last summer, a protest movement swept Israel when hundreds of thousands of people marched and set up protest camps in city centers.

Activists say that the situation has not changed as a result of last year’s rallies.

"I feel frustrated," one of the organizers Amnon Rabinovitz said. "We asked for a lot [last summer] and these things didn’t happen."

 

コロラド州のマリファナ自由化団体が初のテレビCMを放映

 
Colorado marijuana legalization campaign runs first TV ad



The Campaign to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol unveiled its first television advertisement on Thursday, urging voters in Colorado to legalize recreational use of the drug.

regulate: 〈…を〉規則正しくする,整える.
unveil:〈新製品などを〉初公開する.

In the 30-second ad, a young woman sends an email to her mother explaining why she uses marijuana instead of alcohol.

“I used to drink a lot,” she says. “It was kind of crazy. But now that I am older, I prefer to use marijuana. It’s less harmful to my body, I don’t get hungover and honestly I feel safer around marijuana users.”

Residents of Colorado will have the opportunity this November to legalize marijuana possession and allow regulated sales of marijuana in their state.

If approved by voters, the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act would allow for the limited possession and cultivation of cannabis by adults age 21 and over.

It would also allow the state and local governments to enact regulations on the commercial production and distribution of marijuana, as well giving local governments the option to prohibit marijuana sales altogether.

enact:〈法律を〉制定する,規定する
as well:さらに
altogether:まったく,完全に; 全然,まるで.

The Campaign to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol hopes the ad “will inspire thousands of mothers and daughters in the state to have conversations about marijuana this weekend.”

“We need our supporters to help other Coloradans appreciate that marijuana is not ‘bad;’ it is simply a less harmful and acceptable alternative to alcohol,” the campaign said.

alternative: 選択できるもの,選択肢.

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speakloud bm

Author:speakloud bm
英語がわかると世界が見える。日本のマスコミが伝えないニュースを英語を学びつつ紹介します。



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